The overarching goal of this project is to develop the first comprehensive social and neurological understanding of how extremist organizations propagate their messages and which audiences are most susceptible. To do this, we propose a three-year program of basic research, with an optional two-year extension, to improve our understanding of how violent extremist organizations (VEOs) such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) construct cultures of martyrdom that mobilize support for their activities, especially their use of suicide attacks. Though scholars agree that establishing a culture of martyrdom is essential to a group’s ability to maintain support for its most violent actions, we do not yet understand the social processes and conditions under which they succeed or the degree to which psychological and cultural factors predispose certain audiences to accept cultures of martyrdom.